The latest IPCC report on climate change impacts and projections for Australia.
OBSERVED CHANGES AND IMPACTS FOR AUSTRALIA:
* More hot days and heatwaves, less snow
* More rainfall in the north, less April-October rainfall in the southwest and southeast.
* More extreme fire weather days in the south and east.
* Extreme events included Australia’s hottest and driest year in 2019 with a record-breaking number of days over 39C.
* Three major floods in eastern Australia during 2019-2021.
* Major fires in southern and eastern Australia during 2019-2020.
* Extreme heat has led to excess deaths and increased rates of many illnesses.
* Nuisance and extreme coastal flooding have increased due to sea-level rise superimposed upon high tides and storm surges in low-lying locations.
* The Bramble Cay melomys, an endemic mammal species, became extinct due to loss of habitat associated with sea-level rise and storm surges in the Torres Strait.
* Extensive coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef and loss of temperate kelp forests due to ocean warming and marine heatwaves.
PROJECTED IMPACTS AND KEY RISKS:
* Further climate change is inevitable.
* The rate and magnitude will be largely dependent on the emission pathway.
* More hot days and fewer cold days.
* Further sea-level rise, ocean warming and ocean acidification.
* Less winter and spring rainfall is projected in southern Australia.
* Uncertain rainfall changes in northern Australia.
* More droughts and extreme fire weather projected in southern and eastern Australia.
* Increased rainfall intensity is projected, with fewer tropical cyclones and a greater proportion of severe cyclones.
* Ongoing impacts on species and ecosystems
SOURCE: IPCC Working Group II report, Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
(Australian Associated Press)